In May of 1858, the construction of a new community began near the location where the Republican and Smoky Hill Rivers join. The new community was named Junction City.
Early law enforcement of the new community was handled by the County Sheriff, City Marshal, and often the protective device of Army regiments from nearby Fort Riley. The Provost-Marshal of Fort Riley was called upon to preserve the peace and maintain order. These early years were marked by many vigilante groups reporting the use of violence as the quickest form of justice.
In 1867 a City Marshal was appointed in Junction City to aid in the keeping of the peace, but it was not until a proclamation was made from the Mayor’s Office that "no citizen, officer or soldier, except when on duty, shall carry on their persons any pistol, revolver, bowie knife, or slug shot or other deadly weapon either concealed or otherwise, within the limits of Junction City", that civilization began to take hold in Junction City.
In the early 1870s, Wild Bill Hickok was hired by the Mayor to clean up Junction City. Since that time, Junction City has had 28 different men appointed to the position of City Marshal or Chief of Police. The terms City Marshal and Chief of Police were used interchangeably in the early years. The role of the Chief of Police has varied through the years even including City Purchasing Agent and Street Commissioner.
On March 3, 1937, the City of Junction City dedicated its Municipal Building at 700 North Jefferson Street. The Junction City Police Department moved into that location at that time. In 1967, an addition was added to the Municipal Building to add cell block facilities to the structure.
In 1989 the Junction City Police Department moved into its current facility at 210 East 9th Street.